The Resource Investigating the Neurobiologic Basis for Loss of Cortical Laterality in Chronic Stroke Patients, Charleston, South Carolina, 2014-2016

Investigating the Neurobiologic Basis for Loss of Cortical Laterality in Chronic Stroke Patients, Charleston, South Carolina, 2014-2016

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Investigating the Neurobiologic Basis for Loss of Cortical Laterality in Chronic Stroke Patients, Charleston, South Carolina, 2014-2016
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Investigating the Neurobiologic Basis for Loss of Cortical Laterality in Chronic Stroke Patients, Charleston, South Carolina, 2014-2016
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The primary goal of this project was to determine the neurobiologic basis for elevated activity in the contralesional primary motor cortex (PMC). In healthy individuals, unimanual movement (with either the left or right hand) is associated with activity in a network of predominantly contralateral brain regions, including the primary motor cortex. This laterality is often compromised following a middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke. Neuroimaging studies of these patients have shown that unimanual movements with the effected hand are associated with elevated blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in both the lesioned and the nonlesioned primary motor cortices. Elevated activity in the contralesional PMC is well-established in chronic stroke patients and is associated with poor motor rehabilitation outcomes. Yet the neurobiologic basis for this aberrant neural activity is equivocal. One factor that may contribute to elevated activity in the contralesional PMC is increased cortical excitatory tone within the contralesional hemisphere. While approximately 80% of the descending corticospinal neurons that control the right hand originate in the left PMC, 20% originate in the right PMC. Elevated activity in the right PMC of left-sided stroke patients may reflect compensatory activity of these descending fibers. Neural activity in the PMC reflects the balance of local excitatory (glutamatergic) and inhibitory (GABAergic) processing. It can be measured in two manners: electrophysiologically, using single hemisphere paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and neurochemically, using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Another factor that may contribute to elevated activity in the contralesional PMC is a loss of transcallosal inhibition between the hemispheres. During right hand movement, the left PMC of healthy individuals actively inhibits the right PMC via inhibitory projections through the corpus callosum. In left MCA stroke patients, elevated activity in the contralesional (right) PMC when moving the right hand may reflect a loss of typical inhibition from the left PMC. The integrity of inter-hemispheric information transfer can be measured in two manners: using bi-hemispheric paired-pulse TMS, and using a multimodal brain stimulation/brain imaging approach, interleaved TMS/MRI. Through interleaved TMS/MRI, researchers can selectively stimulate the ipsilesional PMC and quantify the amount of TMS-induced activity in the contralesional PMC. These two explanations were tested through a cross-sectional investigation of neural function in left MCA stroke patients with mild-moderate right upper extremity impairment and controls matched for age and cardiovascular risk factors. To assess the clinical relevance of these factors on motor dysfunction, the researchers performed a detailed kinematic assessment of movement efficiency, smoothness and compensation
http://library.link/vocab/creatorName
  • Hanlon, Colleen Ann
  • Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor]
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Investigating the Neurobiologic Basis for Loss of Cortical Laterality in Chronic Stroke Patients, Charleston, South Carolina, 2014-2016
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  • 2014--2016
  • 37313
Control code
ICPSR37313.v1
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Access restricted to subscribing institutions
Label
Investigating the Neurobiologic Basis for Loss of Cortical Laterality in Chronic Stroke Patients, Charleston, South Carolina, 2014-2016
Publication
Note
  • 2014--2016
  • 37313
Control code
ICPSR37313.v1
Governing access note
Access restricted to subscribing institutions

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      3000 College Station, Brunswick, ME, 04011-8421, US
      43.907093 -69.963997
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